L’héritage malgré soi ? Le couple patrimoine-territoire à l’épreuve de la Caraïbe

Abstract : This thesis explores the complexity of the notion of heritage from a Caribbean context, both specific and intimately linked to world movements since the sixteenth century. It examines the in-between that characterizes heritage, between the inherited dimension-perceived as an inalienable given, and the dimension constructed in the present for a becoming, manifested by what one wishes to transmit to the future generations. The heritage unfolds in the singular-collective relationship of which it invokes the imaginary world, the connections between spaces and different temporalities. It can be perceived as a barometer of the capacity of societies to fit into a communication order envisaged as an act of sharing. The proposed multidirectional perspective confronts historicized mobilizations of a patrimony that is a tool of the powers taken up in political, economic and technical convergences, in which the order of knowledge is also forged, to the social functions of heritage which refer to a quest for meaning, social bonding, resources and is part of complex territorialities. The Caribbean, a polythetic territory, presents an unprecedented point of view to question this heritage / territory couple and the problematic paradigms that its institutionalization naturalized during the period of formation of European national identities, a period correlated with the emergence of Modernity. The Transatlantic Slave Trade, the slave system based on race and then colonization, is a history associated with suffering, a complex transnational past, the sharing of which is still problematic, a legacy that no one wishes to accept, but which still impact social relations. The capacity to perform, to cope with the contribution of each one, to transmit know-how has been deployed in the Caribbean societies with and against the systems of oppression, as a form of resistance and survival, an essential vital resource from a practical and symbolic point of view. Long ago rejected from the normative space of the heritage, these legagy incorporate perceptions that are incompatible with the definitions and the fixed treatment methods of the institutional heritage articulated around the material productions. The Caribbean poetic and intellectual discourse from the years 1960-1970 was forged in a double dynamic, associating the critical deconstruction of the instituted order initiated by the first generation with an imaginary of the common space inspired by the will to revalorize the heritages, their creativity and the ability of Men to reinvent the imaginations of the world based on the Relation. This Caribbean project is here read as the proposal of a creative heritage break linked to the maling of a territory in breach with the superposition-fusion of the political, physical and cultural space imposed by the prism of the national imagination. This thesis takes as its starting point the traces of these relational dimensions in which historical constructions, multiple trajectories and territorialities intervene, and then tries to bring to light the naturalized paradigms, the inheritances and the contemporary constraints which participate in this heritage impediment which is not unrelated to conflicts arising from the treatment of the past in public space. The last movement puts this research in perspective of the observation of effective projects: the digital libraries of the Caribbean. The author analyzes the methods of construction, questions the individual and collective contexts and the multiple territorialities that intervene in these ultimate heterotopies of the Caribbean, manifestations of the Caribbean utopia. This observation makes it possible to measure the obstacles of all kinds (technological, legal, economic, professional) facing actors engaged in projects that aim to shape or reveal relations between territories that are both distinct and connected and to treat the heritage both as traces of the past and as a living, dynamic phenomenon, constantly enriched by contemporary experiences. The different intertwined scales of analysis and the Caribbean cross-sectional approach make it possible to sketch different levels of action in order to reposition the treatment of the past and the transmission of resources in a common space envisaged as relational.
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Anne Pajard. L’héritage malgré soi ? Le couple patrimoine-territoire à l’épreuve de la Caraïbe. Sciences de l'information et de la communication. Université des Antilles, 2017. Français. ⟨tel-01714864⟩

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