Génocide par substitution: usages et cadre théorique

Abstract : In the early sixties, when young Martinican and Guadeloupean migrated to continental France to get jobs in the secondary and tertiary sector, the arrival of white civil servants to get positions of high responsibility, led Aimé Césaire, representative of Martinique in the National Assembly, to describe in 1977 this trend as "genocide by substitution". His standpoint reflected the fear of seeing the specter of colonialism back with the transfer of white officials in the overseas departments and conversely the departure of young West Indians to France. For Césaire, the resources available to the newcomers and their ideology placed them in a dominant position. Decades later, the concept of genocide by substitution was taken over by representatives of trade unions and associations in Martinique. They castigated the government's policy which consisted of sending young certified teachers from the overseas departments to France and to hire young teachers from continental France in the French West-Indies. This paper purports to understand in which conditions the term "genocide by substitution" was used in the second half of the twentieth century and then in 2004. The purpose is to establish a conceptual framework on the uses of the term, relying in particular on the work of Raphael Lemkin, a Polish lawyer. What is the link between the two periods? What were the bases to describe the two phenomena as "genocide by substitution"?
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Claire Palmiste. Génocide par substitution: usages et cadre théorique. Frédéric Angleviel. Les Outre-mers français : actualités et études, Volume 1, L'Harmattan, 2012, 978-2-296-99652-6. ⟨hal-01771854⟩

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