Contextualisation de l’éducation au développement durable en Guadeloupe : conceptions d’acteurs socioéconomiques, d’élèves de cycle 3 et pratiques enseignantes

Abstract : Education for sustainable development (ESD) is a part of compulsory education in the ″cycle 3″ of primary school in France and its overseas territories since 2004. Due to its environmental dimension, ESD leaves a large part to relationships with territories, and should take into account environmental realities close to the pupils. As a part of the researches on the study of relationships between teaching and contexts, the aim of this thesis is to describe how the contexts are taken into account in ESD in Guadeloupe. Our premise consists in identifying contextual particularities, or more precisely what we call ″objects of context″, which have been defined by actors in sustainable development, in order to highlight contextual dimensions of the teaching of sustainable development on the one hand and pupils’ conceptions on the other hand. In methodological terms, semi-structured interviews with local actors were realized in order to identify and describe these objects of contexts. This is achieved in the second part of the work. The descriptive study of the education system, in the third part of the work, is based on the analysis of the official programs and of the contents of pedagogical projects, as well as on exchanges with teachers of primary school. The fourth part of the work presents the results of a questionnaire survey led with a representative sample of more than six hundred pupils of CM1 and CM2 school years in Guadeloupe. The conceptions of local actors of sustainable developments enable us to identify what we call ″objects of context″. This term, which appeared during the analysis of their interviews, evokes characteristics, features, things evokes characteristics, features, things specific to a given territory. The actors describe twelve objects of context, coming from nine thematic of the sustainable development (SD). Some are essential, other secondary. They can be classified into four categories: geographical, related to identity, organizational, and ecological. These personalities propose to deal with them in the framework of educational projects centered on the contexts. The educational priorities that they are considering are oriented toward pupils. While the Official Instructions specify that the teaching of sciences and SD must be based on the observation of the reality, we have been questioning the concrete implementation of these objects of contexts in the educational sphere, at the levels of programs, teaching practices, and knowledge of students. The programs recommend a transdisciplinary approach to education for SD by implementing project approaches. Indeed, SD projects are developed as well to the initiative of teachers than that of the Institution. The teachers try to take into account the objects of contexts, but encounter difficulties in transcending them through educational projects. These professionals hardly explain the teaching situations they implement, but the topics considered by them are related to urgent societal issues. This approach is confronted with a representation of the teaching of SD which is oriented toward a behaviorist education. As the local resources are mainly dedicated to tropical ecology, teachers use national resources to address other themes. The pupils have a contextualized design of the SD, which they understand more in their social than in their school practices. They perceive the local issues of the SD and are able to distinguish them from those of mainland France. In this sense, they have some knowledge of Guadeloupe they build by the observation of their concrete environment, from different criterions to those of the school. Their answers show the weak impact of teaching related to SD on their knowledge of environmental phenomena and even on the level of ecology. As a conclusion, and surprisingly, the objects of context appear in a strong and close way in the conceptions of social actors and those of students. However, if the educational system seems to grab those objects, particularly through SD projects, the effect on the construction of knowledge, linked to SD issues, based on the contexts of Guadeloupe, seems to be small.
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Thierry de Lacaze. Contextualisation de l’éducation au développement durable en Guadeloupe : conceptions d’acteurs socioéconomiques, d’élèves de cycle 3 et pratiques enseignantes. Education. Université des Antilles, 2015. Français. ⟨tel-01823334⟩



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